Selected Passages from Hungarian-Ottoman Wars

General Chronology of Hungarian-Ottoman wars between 1552 and 1699

The wars of Sultan Suleiman against Hungary, 1526-1566

I have already made a list of the events between 1366 and 1552. Now, let us see the second part of the general chronology of historical events of the Hungarian-Ottoman wars. I included a few important dates from European history for the sake of orientation. I decided to close this chronology with the year 1699. Later, there were more battles against the Ottoman Empire but those wars should be listed rather among the Habsburg-Ottoman wars. Yet, there were Crimean Tatar raids against Transylvania well into the 18th century, and many Hungarians fought in the Habsburg army until the retaking of Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade in 1790.

Eastern Hungary (later Transylvanian Principality) in 1550

1551–1555 – Transylvania in Habsburg hands;

1552. February 19 – the Peril of Szeged: Tót Mihály, former judge of Szeged attacks Szeged with his Hajdú warriors, takes the palisade but could not take the castle; Pasha Hádim Ali of Buda arrives and defeats the army of Tót and Aldana;

1552 July 9 – Hádim Ali takes Drégely castle, defended by Szondy György, after a heroic 3-day-long siege, then he takes several smaller castles in Upper Hungary;

1552. August 9–10. – In the Battle of Palást, Hádim Ali defeats the army of Chief Captain Teuffel;

1552. July 27– Kara Ahmed, Second Vizier takes Temesvár castle after a 32-day-long siege;

1552 – the end of August, the beginning of September: the castle of Szolnok is taken by the army of Kara Ahmed and Hádim Ali;

1552. 10 September – 18 October – The siege of Eger Castle, defended by Dobó István is lifted, Kara Ahmed and Hadim Ali go home after 38 days;

About Eger castle’s siege:

1553 – Mary Tudor becomes the first queen regnant of England and restores the Church of England under Papal authority;

1556 – the Military Council of Vienna is established;

1556 – János Zsigmond and Izabella are called back to Transylvania by the Estates;

1556 – the first siege of Szigetvár castle, an Ottoman defeat;

1557 – Habsburg Spain declares bankruptcy. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575, and 1596;

1558-1583 – Livonian War between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark, and Russia;

1562 – the battle of Hadad, Balassa beats the troops of King János Zsigmond;

1562-98 – French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots;

1565 March 13 – a treaty is signed between King Maximilian I and King János Zsigmond in Szatmár: the latter resigned from his royal title and his heirs could claim only Transylvania, not the entire Hungarian Kingdom in the future;

Hungary in 1568

1565 – the Hospitallers, a Crusading Order, defeat the Ottomans at the siege of Malta;

1566-1648 – the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Netherlands;

1566 June – János Zsigmond and Sultan Suleiman meet in Zimony;

1566. 09 June – Pasha Pertef takes Gyula castle (defended by Kerecsényi László);

1566. 01 August–07 September – the heroic defense of Szigetvár castle, Zrínyi’s last stand, the death of Sultan Suleiman;

1568 – Edict of Torda, the four religions of Transylvania are free to coexist;

1568. 17 February – the Treaty of Edirne (Drinápoly) is signed between King Maximilian I (1564-1576) and Sultan Selim II;

1569 – the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is created with the Union of Lublin which lasts until 1795;

1570 16 August – The Treaty of Speyer is signed between János Zsigmond and King Maximilian (János Zsigmond is Prince of Transylvania, the Transylvanian Principality is accepted, and the Partium is added to its territory);

Poland and Hungary, 1552

1571 May – Báthori István is elected as Prince of Transylvania;

1571 – Pope Pius V completes the Holy League as a united front against the Ottomans; the Battle of Lepanto;

1572 – France: Catherine de Medici instigates the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre;

1575. 07  August – The Battle of Kerelőszentpál, Báthori István defeats the usurper Bekes Gáspár;

1575 December – Sultan Murad III sends a new adhname to Báthori István (the tax increases from 10 to 15,000 gold pieces);

1576 – Báthori István is crowned as a Polish king in Krakow;

1576 – Sultan Murad III accepts Báthori Kristóf as the Voivode of Transylvania (1576–1581); 

1579 – the Union of Utrecht unifies the northern Netherlands;

1581 – Sultan Murad III accepts the child Báthori Zsigmond (son of Báthori Kristóf) as the Voivode of Transylvania; the Diets declares his maturity in 1588, he reigns 1581–1598, 1598–1599, 1601-1602;

1591/93–1606 – the 15-Year-War between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans;

The “Hungaries” (Royal Hungary, Ottoman Lands, Transylvania) 1593-1603

Here is the history of the 15-Year-War, in detail (39 parts):

1593  June 22 – the Battle of Sziszek, the Pasha of Bosnia is defeated; 

1594 September – Grand Vizier  Sinan takes Győr; 

159 October – the Siege of Komárom, the Ottomans failed to take it; 

1595 January – Emperor / King Rudolf (1576–1608) and the men of Prince Báthori Zsigmond of Transylvania sign a Treaty in Prague;

1595 September – the Christians take Esztergom back; 

1595 October – the troops of Prince Báthori and Voivode Vitáz Mihály of Wallachia beat the Ottomans at Gyurgyevó at the Lower Danube; 

1596 October – Sultan Mehmed III takes Eger castle, and a new Elayet is organized;

1596 October 26 – the Battle of Mezőkeresztes, Ottoman victory;

1598 – Prince Báthori Zsigmond resigns but returns soon; 

1598 – the Imperial troops take Győr, led by Pálffy Miklós and Adolf Schwarzenberg; the Ottomans besiege Várad but cannot take it; Buda is besieged by the Imperial army but they cannot take it, either;

1598 – the Edict of Nantes ends the French Wars of Religion;

1598-1613 Russia descends into anarchy during the Times of Troubles;

1599 – Báthori Zsidmond resigns again, the new Prince is his cousin, Báthori András but he suffers a defeat from Voivode Vitéz Mihály (Mihai Viteazul) and dies;

Borders of the “Hungaries” after 1590 (Royal Hungary, Ottoman Lands, Transylvania)

1599–1600 – Vitéz Mihály (Mihai Viteazul) rules Transylvania; 

1600 October – The Ottomans take Kanizsa, and organize a new Elayet;

1601 – Báthori Zsigmond is Prince of Transylvania, again (1601–1602);

1601 – In the Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system;

1603 – The short reign of Székely Mózes in Transylvania, his  defeat and death; 

1603–1604 – The terror of General Basta in Transylvania; 

1604 October – the captains of the Hajdú warriors get allied with Bocskai István; 

1604 October 15 – Bocskai beats the Imperials at Álmosd, the beginning of the Bocskai Uprising; 

1604 November – Bocskai’s army is defeated by Basta at Osgyán and at Edelény; 

1605 April – The Diet of Szerencs, Bocskai is elected as Prince of Hungary; 

1605 September – Bocskai is elected as Prince of Transylvania at the Diet of Medgyes; 

1605 October – Grand Vizier Lala Mehmed takes Esztergom back from the Imperials;

1605 November-December – Bocskai holds a meeting at Korpona, gives privileges to the Hajdús;

1605 November – Bocskai meets  Grand Vizier Lala Mehmed at Pest on the Rákos Field, he receives an adhname and a crown;

1606 May 23 – the Treaty of Vienna between Bocskai and Emperor Rudolf;

Transylvania, 1606

1606. 11. 11. – the Peace of Zsitvatorok ends the 15-Year-War between Emperor Rudolf and Sultan Achmed I (a truce for 20 years);

1606. December – the death of Prince Bocskai István;

1607. February–1608. March – the reign of Prince Rákóczi Zsigmond in Transylvania (he resigns in favor of Bethlen Gábor);

1607–1608 – the second Hajdú uprising;

1608. October-November – Emperor Rudolf resigns and Emperor Matthias II (1608-1619) is elected; Matthias accepts the Treaty of Vienna, too; 

1610 – the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian–Swedish forces;

1613–1629 – the reign of Prince Bethlen Gábor in Transylvania; Bethlen was elected by the Diet, with Ottoman military support;

1615 – the First Treaty of Nagyszombat (Trnava) is signed between Bethlen and Emperor Matthias II; 

1616 – Bethlen cedes Lippa castle to the Ottomans; 

1617 – the Second Treaty of Nagyszombat; 

1618 – the Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years’ Wars, which devastates Europe;

1619–1621 – the first anti-Habsburg war of Bethlen Gábor;

Hungary and Transylvania during the Ottoman wars

1619. November – the Transylvanian army surrounds Vienna but lifts the siege; 

1620. 25. August – the Diet of Besztercebánya (Banská Bistrica) elects Bethlen as a king of Hungary; 

1620-1621 – Polish-Ottoman War over Moldavia;

1621 – the Battle of Chocim: Poles and Cossacks under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat the Ottomans;

1621. 31 December – the Treaty of Nikolsburg is signed between Bethlen and Emperor Ferdinand II (reigned 1619-1637); 

1623 – Bethlen Gábor’s second war against the Habsburgs;

1624-1642 – as chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu centralizes power in France;

1624. May – the Second Treaty of Vienna is signed between Bethlen and Ferdinand;

1626 – Bethlen Gábor’s third war against the Habsburgs;  

1626. September – the clashes between Bethlen and General Wallenstein;

1626. December – the Treaty of Pozsony is signed between Bethlen és and Ferdinand;

1629. November – Bethlen Gábor dies, his successor is his wife, Brandenburgi Katalin (ruled 1629–1630);

The Principality of Transylvania in the first years of the 17th century

1630. September – Brandenburgi Katalin is made to resigne, Bethlen István seizes the power for a short time;

1630 – the third Hajdú uprising;

1630. December – Bethlen István resigns at the Diet of Segesvár, Rákóczi György is elected as Prince of Transylvania (rules 1630-1648);

1636. October – Prince Rákóczi I György defeats the usurper Bethlen István and his Ottoman auxiliary troops at Szalonta; 

1642. June – György, the son of Prince Rákóczi György receives the Ottoman approval for his future reign;

1642 – the beginning of the English Civil War, the conflict will end in 1649;

1644–1645 – the anti-Habsburg war of Prince Rákóczi György, he occupies seven counties of the Upper Lands of Hungary;

1645 –Rákóczi’s troops join the Swedish units at Brünn (Brno), in Moravia;

1645-1669 – Ottoman war with Venice. The Ottomans invade Crete and capture Canea;

1645. December – the Treaty of Linz is signed between Prince Rákóczi György I and Emperor Ferdinand III (reigned 1637–1657);

1648. October – Prince Rákóczi György I dies, his son, Rákóczi György II becomes the ruler of Transylvania (ruled 1648–1660);

Transylvania in 1664 (to the right side)

1648-1653 – the Fronde civil war in France;

1648-1667 – the Deluge wars leave Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in ruins;

1649-1653 – the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland;

1656-1661 – Mehmed Köprülü is Grand Vizier;

1657 – Prince Rákóczi György II launches his Polish war, marches in Warsaw, then his army is captured by the Crimean Tatars; 

1657  November – the Transylvanian Diet puts down Rákóczi and elects Rhédey Ferenc as Prince but Rákóczi returns in January 1658;

1658. – the punishing campaign of Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed against Rákóczi; the taking of Jenő castle; the Turks put Barcsay Ákos on the throne (rules 1658-1660); strict terms of peace, the Transylvanians must pay 500,000 Thallers, and the annual tax is increased to 40,000 gold Forints; 

1659–1660 – the contest for the power between Rákóczi György and Barcsay Ákos;

1660 – Rákóczi György suffers a defeat at Szászfenes, and dies soon; Várad castle is taken by the Ottomans;

Transylvania by Abraham Ortelius, 1612

1661 January – the Diet puts down Barcsay and elects Kemény Jánost as the Prince; Kemény has Barcsay executed;

1661 September – the Ottomans order the election of Apafi Mihály (rules 1661–1690);

1662 January – the Battle of Nagyszőllös, Pasha Kücsük Mehmed of Jenő castle (supporter of Apafi) defeats Kemény János who dies there; 

1663–1664 – Ottoman campaigns against Royal Hungary (Pasha Köprülüzáde Fázil Ahmed’s attacks between 1661 and 1676);

1663 August – Pasha Achmed beats Chief Captain Forgách Ádám of Érsekújvár at Párkány (Sturovo); 

1663 September – the siege of Érsekújvár (Nove Zámky) castle, the Ottomans take it and organize an Elayet; 

1664 January-February – the Winter Campaign of Zrínyi Miklós (Nikola Zrinski), the taking of smaller castles, the burning of the bridge of Eszék (Osiek);

1664 April-May – the Christians fail to take Kanizsa castle;

1664 30 June – the Turks take Zrínyi-Újvár castle, and demolish it; 

1664 01 August – the Battle of Szentgotthárd, General Montecuccoli defeats the Ottoman army;

1664 10 August – the Treaty of Vasvár is signed (between Pasha Köprülü Fázil Achmed and Simon Reniger)

The “Hungaries” (Royal Hungary, the Ottoman Occupied Lands, and the Principality of Transylvania), French map from 1664

1664 11. – Zrínyi Miklós dies (hunting accident); 

1666 August – the Wesselényi Conspiracy begins in Murány castle; 

1666 19 December – Wesselényi, Zrínyi Péter, Nádasdy sign a treaty against the Habsburgs;

1669 April – Prince Rákóczi I Ferenc signs a treaty with the Protestants in Sárospatak;

1671. 30. April – Zrínyi, Frangepán and Nádasdy are executed in Bécsújhely and in Vienna;

1672–1677 – the anti-Habsburg “kuruc” movement;

1672 August-September – the “kuruc” troops defeat the Imperials at Enyicke but later suffer a defeat at Györke;

1672-1673 – an Ottoman campaign to help the Ukrainian Cossacks. John Sobieski defeats the Ottomans at the second battle of Khotyn; the Polish-Ottoman War ends in 1676;

1676-1681 – Russia and the Ottoman empire commence the Russo-Turkish Wars;

1677 May – an agreement made in Warsaw between the French, the Transylvanians, and the kuruc leaders; 

1677 October – the Battle of Nyalábvár (the kuruc troops and the French defeat the Imperials);

1678–1682 – the Thököly Uprising;

Hungary, 1683

1680 January – Thököly Imre is elected as the leader of the rebelling kuruc troops at Szoboszló; 

1682 June – Thököly Imre marries Zrínyi Ilona;

1682 August-September – Thököly takes Kassa (Kaschau, Kosice), and receives the “adhname” of the sultan in the camp at Fülek castle;

1682–1685 – the Northern Hungarian Principality of Thököly Imre;

1683 March – Emperor Leopold I and King Jan Sobieski sign a treaty of alliance; 

1683 – the campaign of Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa against Vienna; the Second Siege of Vienna;

1683 12 September – the Battle of Kahlenberg, Kara Mustafa is defeated by Prince Charles of Lothar and King Sobieski;

1684 March – the Holy League is created (Habsburgs, Poland, Venice), organized by Pope XI Innocent;

1684. – the unsuccessful siege of Buda;

1685 July-August – the Prince of Lothar takes Érsekújvár castle;  

1685 October – the Pasha of Várad arrests Thököly Imre but releases him after a short time;

1686 02 September – the Christian army takes back Buda castle; 

The Reconquest Wars of Hungary

1687 12 August– the Battle of Nagyharsány (also called the “second battle of Mohács”), Prince Charles of Lothar’s victory; 

1687 October – the Treaty of Balázsfalva between Prince Apafi and Prince Charles: the days of the independent Transylvania are numbered;

1688. 06. September – General Louis of Baden takes Belgrade; 

1689 – the Battle of Killiecrankie is fought between Jacobite and Williamite forces in Highland Perthshire;

1690 October– Köprülü Musztafa takes Belgrade back from the Imperials;

1690. 21. August – the Battle of Zernyest,  Thököly’s victory and his one-month-long Transylvanian reign; Louis of Baden forces him out of Transylvania;

1690 October – the Diploma Leopoldinum is issued, and Transylvania is ruled according to this document for the next 150 years;

1691 19. August – the Battle of Szalánkemén, Köprülü Musztafa is defeated by Louis of Baden; 

1695–1696 – Sultan Mustafa II’s counter-attack in Hungary;

1696 August – the indecisive Battle of Hetény (between Augustus II the Strong and Sultan Mustafa);

1697 July – the “kuruc” uprising in the Hegyalja region; 

1697 11. September– the Battle of Zenta (Eugene of Savoy defeats the army of Sultan Mustafa II); 

1699. 26 January – the Treaty of Karlóca is signed for 25 years; 

The partitions of Hungary during the Ottoman wars and in the modern age

If you like my writings, please  feel free to support me with a coffee here:

This article contains Amazon ads. By purchasing through these links, you can help my work at no added cost to you. Thank you!

My work can also be followed and supported on Patreon: Become a Patron!