Selected Passages from Hungarian-Ottoman Wars

Ugra

Ugra (or Szászugra, Romanian Ungra, German Galt) is a village in Romania, in Transylvania, in Brasov County. It is located on the eastern edge of the historical area of Királyföld, 40 km northeast of Fogaras, on the right bank of the Olt River.

Ugra (Photo: Lánczi Imre)

You can read more about the German Saxons of Transylvania here:

https://www.hungarianottomanwars.com/essays/who-were-the-german-saxons-in-transylvania/

…and about the Hungarian Székelys, their neighbors:

https://www.hungarianottomanwars.com/essays/who-were-the-szekelys/

Ugra (Photo: Lánczi Imre)

It was first mentioned in 1211 as Noilgiant, then in 1222 as Noilat, in 1366 as Ugra, in 1400 as Galt, in 1488 as Gald, in 1532 as Galde. The Romans had built a castrum next to it, which survived until 1211. It was a Saxon settlement, the property of the Szentpáli family between 1376 and 1493. In 1529-1531 most of the population was exterminated by the Turks.

Ugra (Photo: Mayer Jácint)

It was then repopulated partly by Hungarian Székelys and partly by German Saxons. The two ethnic groups, both converted to Lutheranism, ran the village together. In 1658, the entire population was wiped out by the Crimean Tartars, after which it was repopulated with a mixed Saxon-Hungarian population. The Saxons came from the surrounding villages, and the Hungarians from Halmágy, Székelyzsombor, and Kóbor.

Ugra (Photo: Neighbour’s goat)

Every third Sunday the church service was held in Hungarian and there was regular social interaction between the Saxons and the Hungarians. In 1701, the church records showed that 62 Saxons and 34 Hungarians lived in the village. In the 18th century, the Hungarians became Saxon in their language, but their traces were preserved in surnames of Hungarian origin and border names.

The village of Ugra

It belonged to Kőhalomszék, after 1876 to the Kőhalmi district of Nagy-Küküllő county. After 1945, 18 houses were attached to the Kőhalmi station.

Ugra at the end of the 19th century (Source: Benő Gyula)

Its Evangelical fortified church was originally built as a Romanesque basilica in the 13th century, using stones from the Roman castrum. The choir, the triumphal arch, the western portal, the space under the former tower, and the remains of a double window in the nave are all that remain of the original church. In 1500 the aisles were demolished and fortified. In 1658 the Crimean Tartars besieged it, took it, and massacred the inhabitants who had taken refuge within its walls.

Ugra (Photo: Mayer Jácint)

Its thatched roof was replaced with shingles in 1702. In 1843 its tower, probably of medieval origin, damaged by the earthquakes of 1802 and 1829, was demolished and replaced by a bell tower outside the church fortress. Its defensive system consists of a gate tower, a pentagonal bastion, and a southwestern tower, in addition to the perimeter wall.

Ugra (Photo: Mirela Savulescu)

In 1850, 543 of its 1095 inhabitants were of German, 336 of Romanian, and 216 of Gypsy nationality; 551 were Orthodox and 541 Evangelical.

Ugra (Photo: Mayer Jácint)

In 1900, of its 1407 inhabitants, 680 were of Romanian, 550 of German, 142 of Hungarian, 23 of Gypsy and 12 of Slovak nationality; 662 were Orthodox, 538 Evangelical, 79 Roman Catholic, 43 Unitarian, 37 Reformed, 34 Greek Catholic and 14 Jewish.
In 2002, of the 1267 inhabitants, 707 were Gypsies, 487 Romanians, 41 Hungarians, and 31 Germans; 1208 were Orthodox, 25 Evangelicals, and 18 Roman Catholics.

Ugra

Source: Wikipedia

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Here are more pictures of Ugra: