Selected Passages from Hungarian-Ottoman Wars between 1372-1699



Fogaras castle (Făgăraș, Fugreschmarkt) is in Transylvania, now Romania.

It was situated on a strategic location; it had had six major sieges in the 16th-17th centuries. The town was first mentioned in 1291. Due to the Mongol invasion, the local Hungarians were wiped out and people from Wallachia and Moldova, now Romanians, began to settle in the area.

The castle was built in 1310 by the Transylvanian Voivode Kán László. It belonged to the Wallachian voivodes in the 14th century until King Matthias Corvinus got it back in 1464 and gifted it to Lord Geréb János. Later it went to Corvin János but after his death in 1505 it was given to Bornemissza János and finally to the Majláth family.

Lord Török Bálint laid a siege on it in 1540 and the Ottomans were also trying to get it, in vain.


After 1588 the castle became the traditional property of the wife of the Transylvanian Prince.

Voivode Micheil Vitezul took it in 1599 and he also gave it to his wife. When he was defeated in 1600, the Chief Captain of the Country, Csáky István got the castle. This Transylvanian fort was a key castle of the princes: whoever held it, held the country.

Later it was owned by Prince Bocskai István in 1605 and it remained the usual castle of the Princesses. (1628-1688)

Prince Bethlen Gábor had the castle rebuilt in 1623 and gave it to his wife, Catherine of Brandenburg. She passed it on to Lady Lórántffy Zsuzsanna in 1630, the wife of Prince Rákóczi György I. She was the one who established a school there for the Wallachian (Romanian) people in 1657.

Pasha Kücsük Mehmet took the castle in 1661. The Treaty of Fogaras was made here in 1675 where the French and the Polish kings agreed to support the rebel Hungarian “kuruc” forces.

Another treaty was signed here, in 1688, in which the Hungarian nobles ceded Transylvania to the Habsburgs.

Altogether, ten Diets had been held among its walls.

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