Selected Passages from Hungarian-Ottoman Wars between 1372-1699

Szabács

Szabács

Szabács (Шабац / Sabac / Šabac / Böğürdelen / Schabatz) used to be the center of the Banate of Macsó, a key fort in the southern Hungarian borderland against the Ottoman Empire. Regarding the short time, while it was under Hungarian rule, it had a significant role in Hungarian history. You can find it in Serbia, 65 km from Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) to the west, along the Száva river.

The settlement was founded in the 13th century and it was called Zaslon. It was part of the Serbian Despotate until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459. The castle of Szabács is all the more important because it is one of the few bigger castles built by the Ottomans in the area. We can find only two similar castles, one of them is at the Iron Gate which is called Fetislam or Rama castle near Galambóc (Golubac). 

The Hungarian southern Borderland, 15th-16th century

Here is a video about the siege of 1476, in the Hungarian language: 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzape4PvX5I

Also, you can watch a video here (without any text) about the castle that is in its ruins today:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azAmBWsoZok


 
In 1472, the Pasha of Bosnia, Isza, built the first fortress in the town and named it Bejerdelen (Böğürdelen, meaning “side-striker”). It was rather an earthen fort, reinforced by a palisade and the Száva river`s marshland. Its name „side-striker” made sense if we consider that the Turks could successfully raid the Banate of Szerémség (Sirmium) from the side direction. When the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus heard of the threat, he immediately attacked the fort but at first, he failed to take it. You can read more about King Matthis’ Black Army here:

https://www.hungarianottomanwars.com/essays/the-size-of-king-matthias-army/

Szabács

The king tried again and besieged it in January 1476 with his 15,000 strong armies. There were 1,200 Ottoman defenders in the castle. The king`s mercenaries were fighting not very successfully at the beginning of the siege because they were used to the northern style of combat. Finally, King Matthias pretended to go away from the castle but he hid his troops on the other side of the castle and could take the fort with an ambush on 15 February.

Szabács

Szabács became an important fort in the southern frontier castle-chain and its Hungarian garrison was able to defend it from the Turks in 1492. However, after the death of General Kinizsi Pál, less money was spent on these forts. Sultan Suleiman set out in 1521 to prepare his future conquest by taking the main Hungarian forts like Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade. While the Anatolian army went against Nándorfehérvár, the Rumelian army, led by Pasha Achmed, targeted Szabács. The Pasha had 25,000 men while there were only a couple of hundred Hungarian and Serbian soldiers in Szabács. The Rumelian army usually consisted of Albanian, Serbian and Bosnian troops who had been converted to the Muslim faith.


 
During the Ottoman wars, there were usually two captains in each Hungarian castle because one of them could always stay behind the walls while the other was constantly raiding the enemy. According to the contemporary saying, “a castle can be defended only in the field”. In Szabács castle, Captain Logodi Simon and Thorma András were in command.

Captain Thorma had fewer than 500 men but he was renowned for keeping a very strict discipline so he and his men swore to fight until the last man. They were facing a huge Ottoman army: the Turks had lots of cannons and many cavalrymen. The Pasha could take the outer castle only after 15 days of ceaseless bombardment when the defenders had to withdraw into the inner castle. Then, the enemy launched an overall attack but the defenders sent volleys after volleys and stopped them. Unfortunately, the Christians soon ran out of gunpowder and their number was reduced to 60 men. Yet, they were beating back the attackers only with their swords, quite successfully. Seeing this, the Pasha decided to pour a killing musket fire on them, killing them from a safe distance.

Szabács

The men of Thorma and Logodi could have sneaked away via the Száva (Sava) river but they decided to make a heroic last stand on 7 June 1521. All in all, they were able to hinder the Sultan for a month and caused him significant losses before they all died on the market square when they made their final sally. The Sultan arrived there to witness their last stand but also saw the losses of the Rumelian army.

After the siege, Pasha Achmed joined in the siege of Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade which fell after a month. The castle of Zimony / Zemun was also a very important fort but it fell after only a nine-day-long siege. The enemy’s light cavalry could raid immense areas of the Banate of Szerémség (Sirmium) in September, taking hold of the area. The Turks rebuilt the castle of Szabács. Due to the plague after the Battle of Mohács, the Christian army that attempted taking Szabács back had to be dispersed.
The castle remained in Ottoman hands until 1867 when Voivode Mihály could make a contract with the Turks who finally ceded all their castles in Serbia.

Source: http://www.varak.hu

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Here are more pictures of Szabács castle:

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