King Ulászló II / Vladislav II Jagellonský / Władysław II Jagiellończyk (1456-1516)

If there is one ruler who will be remembered with contempt by Hungarian posterity, it is probably the barely Hungarian-speaking, spendthrift, bumbling, disreputable foreigner who, in the twilight of his life, begged for food from the butchers of Buda and turned the mighty land of Matthias Corvinus into a failed nation-

It is he who is personally responsible for Mohács and Trianon, and above all for Hungary’s permanent exclusion from the ranks of the great powers. Or is he? Does he really deserve the image he has? In the following writing, let us talk about his reign, based on the article of Múlt-kor Magazine and my thoughts.

The first year of the reign of King Ulászló II aka “King Dobzse” (1490-91)
“Mátyás died, and the truth has died with him.” says the Hungarian proverb. After the king`s death (6 April 1490), there were four claimants to the throne of Hungary: first, the Polish Ulászló (Wladyslaw) Jagiellończyk, the Czech king since 1471; you can remember from the previous series that he had wanted to get the Hungarian throne not once time before but Matthias taught him a lesson and Ulászló could not own Silesia and Moravia while Matthias was alive. Then, I had also written about János Corvin, the illegitimate son of Matthias who was the second applicant.
He was the greatest landlord of Hungary at that time, owning 30 castles, 47 agricultural towns, and 1,000 villages. (The second biggest was István Szapolyai with 18 castles, 4 palaces, 17 agricultural towns and 240 villages.)
The third claimant was Habsburg Maximilian; the fourth was János Albert, a Polish prince, the younger brother of Ulászló himself.
It was Queen Beatrix, one of the murderers of King Matthias who helped Ulászló to the Hungarian throne by supporting him with her money. Ulászló had even married her on 4 October 1490 but the Pope had the marriage broken up in 1500 and Beatrix had to be disappointed and was sent back to Italy.
Why did most of the Hungarian aristocrats support Ulászló, too? King Matthias had been elected as a king on the frozen Danube River when he was just 16 and the noblemen thought the young king was easy to influence. They all had to be disappointed because Matthias became a very strong-handed king. Now, Ulászló has made them all the promises they needed, he promised the Czech-Polish alliance and long-lasting peace instead of extra taxes and wars. Ulászló was soon nicknamed “Dobzse László” because he agreed in anything he was asked for, saying “dobzse”, very well.
I had written about the Battle of Bonefield on 4 July whereas Pál Kinizsi annihilated the Black Army but I failed to mention that the Black Army was led by János Corvin and he carried the Holy Crown of Hungary and the Treasury with him: Kinizsi took it away from him and handed it to Ulászló who had been coming from Prague with 15,000 troops.
Finally, the Diet of Buda elected Ulászló as king on 15 July 1490, under the condition that he would wed Beatrix. (Ulászló has reigned until 1516.) Ulászló was crowned on 18 September in Székesfehérvár. During the summer, the Turks were raiding up to Várad but Kinizsi scattered them.
A month later the troops of Maximilian have taken Szombathely and later Veszprém in West-Hungary because he hasn`t abandoned his claim yet; the Austrian conquest of Matthias was fading away, the garrisons were surrendering one by one to Maximilian.
Prince János Albert`s army was besieging Kassa City but the troops of his elder brother Ulászló defeated him in December. Later they made peace, though, the prince was compensated with getting the towns of Eperjes and Szeben near the Polish border. (The prince was defeated by the troops of István Szapolyai near Eperjes, it made him change his plans.)
During the summer of 1491, the troops of Szapolyai and Báthori took Veszprém and Szombathely back from Maximilian so Ulászló had better positions for peace talks.
Ulászló made peace with Habsburg Maximilian in November 1491, they renewed the Treaty of 1463 which said that the Habsburgs would get the Czech and the Hungarian thrones if there were no legitimate heir of Ulászló left. Additionally, Ulászló gave him back all the remaining Austrian territories from Matthias` conquest and paid him 100,000 gold Ducats as a compensation.
All of this inner war took away the Hungarian armies from the southern defenses: the Bosnian Turk troops took advantage of the situation and took the Castle of Koszorúvár / Vinac which was the key to reach the Castle of Jajca.
The future was not quite promising…
King Ulászló II aka “King Dobzse László”: the years before 1500
As we have seen, Ulászló had done everything to win over the Hungarian magnates with his promises; he could settle down the other claimants by either paying them compensation and / or giving them lands or offices; thus giving away the conquest and stability of King Matthias in an instant. The barons` power has been strengthened.
The Diet of Buda on 2 February elected István Szapolyai, Matthias’ general and also the second mightiest landlord of the kingdom as the Palatine of Hungary, the second-in-rank after the king. He was acting on behalf of the king while he was away in Czechia. Szapolyai gave to his son, János Szapolyai a royal upbringing, and you will see him indeed as the king after the Battle of Mohács.
The Ottomans tried to take Náñdorfehérvár (Belgrade), Jajca and Szabács in March 1492 but they were repelled by the armies of Pál Kinizsi, Captain of Lower Hungary and of Péter Váradi, the Archbishop of Kalocsa. Next, Kinizsi scattered in the summer the troops of the Bey of Vidin whose army had been besieging Szörény Castle. Not taking any rest, Kinizsi defeated the last remnants of the Black Army near to the Száva / Sava River at Szegednic in September.
Albeit the uprising of the Saxon towns in Transylvania, the Saxon troops defeated the Turk raiders in February 1493 at the Vöröstorony Pass of the Carpathian Mountains. The Castle of Jajca was attacked again in 1493 by Pasha Jakub of Bosnia but he was repelled by Bán Mihály Pethkey in July. As a result of this, Pasha Jakub decided to raid and pillage Austria and when he was returning with his booty in August he had to face the combined Slavonian-Croatian army of Bán (Duke) Imre Derencsényi at Ubdina in Dalmatia. The Christians suffered there a great defeat, the Bán died along with many high-ranked Croatian lords.
The Turks were attacking the Barcaság area of Transylvania in October, too. Kinizsi stroke back at the end of the year and he set out with 10,000 men-at-arms and was raiding the area of the Lower Danube around Szendrö Castle.
1494: The Turks bribed some part of the garrison of Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade in September but Kinizsi quickly arrived there and defeated them. The Turks turned back and they rather were destroying the Szerémség / Sirmium County and the Slavonian countryside. In answer to that, Kinizsi mobilized 14,000 soldiers and made great destructions in the Turk-occupied Serbia and in Bulgaria but he died on 24 November while doing so. (Please, somebody tell me why he had been fighting against János Corvin, the illegitimate son of Matthias.)
As for the king, he sent an army against Lord Újlaki (the third biggest baron) who was accused of getting allied with the Turks. It was the year when we have a data of 206,000 taxing units were existing in 14 counties of the country from which 91,000 units had failed to pay any taxes to the Treasury. Although it is just a partial data which disregards the remaining 50 counties of the kingdom but we can take a glimpse at the unheard-of cheatings and frauds that must have been going on, unlike in Matthias’ time.
The Treasury’s income was 136,634 gold Forints; additionally, the Diet had voted a tax that amounted to 219,582 gold Forints but only 125,637 coins rolled in.
The Diet tried to ban the animal export in May but it was in vain. Their only sensible decision was to make a law about the Borderland castles: from this time on, there were two captains appointed in each fort. We have data about the population of Transylvania which was about 425,000 people in 1494. According to the researchers, 60% of them were Hungarians and Székelys, 16% Saxons, 24% Romanians (called Wallachians at that time).
It was also the year when King “Dobzse László” allowed his Treasurer, Bishop Zsigmond Ernuszt of Pécs to give the copper mines of Besztercebánya for rent to the Thurzó family. Next year, János Thurzó and Jakob Fugger signed a contract in the hope of exploiting the copper mines and gaining 18-19,000 gold Forints annually from the export of 800 tons of copper. We will see that it was just a beginning of a very good business. King Ulászló allowed the Thurzó family in 1496 to divide the copper from the silver and to distribute the silver as he wished. Yet, something was “leaked” and the noblemen have come to know about many fishy transactions and made the king to arrest and try his Treasurer, Ernuszt Zsigmond. He was released from his captivity only after he paid back 400,000 (!) gold Forints to the Treasury.
Yet, the laws have not been very well enforced because the Diet had to ban the animal export AND the gold- and silver export in 1498. (At the same time they made a law that the kingdom had to welcome all the refugees fleeing from the Ottoman lands to Hungary.) King Ulászló issued a document in March 1498 whereas he officially accepted the involvement of the Fuggers in the mining business.
Did somebody care about the Ottoman peril? Yes, it was Prince János Corvin, Duke of Croatia who defeated a Turk army in Dalmatia at Sebenico in February 1499.
According to an estimated data, the cash-flow of the foreign trade of Hungary was 1,600,000 gold Forints in this year.
According to the own data of Jakob Fugger, 1499, he had invested 277,500 gold Forints in the previous four years into the copper mines of Hungary. The future was bright to him.

A gyorsabb jelölt

II. Ulászló (1490–1516) magyarországi uralmáról nagyjából még mindig az a tárgyi hibáktól hemzsegő kép él, amelyet több helyen olvashattunk 2016-ban, a király halálának 500. évfordulóján. A kudarcos életpálya végső állomása a mohácsi ütközet, amely egyesek szerint meg sem történt volna Ulászló katasztrofális országlása nélkül. Csakhogy a történeti kutatásokból, amelyek az elmúlt két-három évtizedben zajlottak a korábban elhanyagolt Jagelló-korral kapcsolatban, egészen más kép bontakozik ki, mint amit a középiskolában megtanulhattunk.

1490-ben Mátyás halála után kitört az örökösödési háború Magyarország trónjáért. Szigorúan nézve Ulászló öröklési joga gyengébb érveken alapult, mint riválisaié. Corvin Jánost Mátyás szánta utódául, Habsburg Miksa pedig az 1463-as bécsújhelyi megállapodásra hivatkozhatott, amelyben Mátyás neki ígérte Magyarország trónját, ha nem születik törvényes utóda.

Hozzájuk képest Ulászló (és öccse, János Albert) azzal érvelt, hogy a gyermek nélkül elhalt V. László magyar király kisebbik nővérének volt a fia. (Rajta keresztül egyébként a király felmenői között tudhatta Luxemburgi Zsigmondot és az Árpád-házból IV. Bélát is).

Hogy mégis ő nyerhette el a magyar trónt, az főleg diplomáciai erőfeszítéseinek és gyorsaságának köszönhető, ami szöges ellentétben áll a király lomha és tohonya mivoltáról kialakult képpel. 1490 tavaszán jelentős összegeket kért kölcsön, s a maga pártjára állította Mátyás morvaországi és sziléziai zsoldosait, nyáron pedig már Magyarországon járt a hadseregével, megelőzve riválisait.

Megnyerte céljainak Beatrix özvegy királynét is, aki a státusza biztosításáért cserébe szintén pénzzel támogatta, valamint megszerezte a magyar bárók jelentős részének pártfogását. Corvin Jánost, miután a herceg előbb elfogadta, majd elutasította a neki felkínált alkut, Kinizsi Pál és Báthori István győzte le július 4-én a csonthegyi csatában.

Ulászlónak ezt követően meg kellett küzdenie öccsével, János Alberttel, valamint Habsburg Miksával is. Utóbbi ellen tulajdonképpen a Mátyással szemben sikereket hozó stratégia érvényesült: a harcmezőn a Habsburgok győzedelmeskedtek, de az idő- és pénzzavar Ulászló malmára hajtotta a vizet.

A pozsonyi békében végül lemondott Mátyás addigra amúgy is elveszített ausztriai hódításairól, valamint elismerte Miksa örökösödési jogát. A megállapodás sürgető elfogadására azért is kerülhetett sor, mert János Albert a vele megkötött béke ellenére ismét megtámadta bátyját, ám Eperjes mellett végül vereséget szenvedett.

Három kiskirály

Ulászló bűnei között az egyik fontos és állandóan ismétlődő tétel, hogy a nagybirtokosok bólogató kutyája lett, bezzeg Mátyás idején a királlyal senki nem mert szembeszállni. A valóság ezzel szemben az, hogy Hunyadi ellen három lázadás is kitört (1459, 1467, 1471), bár uralmának második felében hatalmát valóban nem merte kétségbe vonni senki. Ám Ulászlóval szemben Mátyásnak volt egy nagyon fontos előnye: megörökölte a Hunyadi-vagyont. És bár ritkán szokták vele kapcsolatban emlegetni, de az a király kezei között hamar elolvadt, mivel uralma biztosítása érdekében a legfontosabb hívei között osztotta szét.

Ulászló viszont „birtoktalanul” kezdte meg országlását, így nem volt mit adományoznia a támogatóinak, ráadásul halála előtt Mátyás Pozsony, Komárom, Visegrád és Buda várát is Corvin Jánosra bízta. A trónöröklésért két éven keresztül vívott harc sem lendítette fel a királyi kincstárt, így Ulászlónak sokkal kevesebb lehetősége nyílt hívekre szert tennie, mint elődjének.

Az új királynak az ország három legnagyobb birtokosa jelentette a legkomolyabb kihívást: Újlaki Lőrinc, Corvin János és a Szapolyaiak. Újlaki Lőrinc herceg arról híresült el, hogy „ökörnek” nevezte Ulászlót, ám erre a kijelentésére nemsokára csúnyán ráfizetett, mert a király ismét megmutatta, hogy képes gyorsan és hatékonyan fellépni a vele szembeszegülőkkel.

1494–95 során összegyűjtötte hadseregét, és Újlaki ellen indult. Olyan gyorsan roppantotta meg a herceg erejét, hogy annak Európa külföldi udvaraiba is híre ment. Amikor Újlaki Lőrinc kegyelemért esedezett, a király annyit üzent neki, hogy „lám az ökörnek van egy vastag szarva”. Újlaki végül megadta magát, és ettől fogva hűséges maradt uralkodójához, 1499-ben pedig a megbocsátás jeleként meghívást nyert a királyi tanácsba is.

Ulászló uralmának másik megkérdőjelezője Corvin János volt. Ő 1496-ban Frangepán Bernáttal szövetkezve Habsburg Miksához és a velenceiekhez fordult segítségért, a király serege azonban a rózsahegyi csatában szétverte a herceg lengyel zsoldosait, őt magát pedig leváltották a báni tisztségéből. Corvin János 1498-ban meghódolt Ulászlónak, és ekkor örökös dalmát–horvát–szlavón bánná nevezték ki, s tevőlegesen pedig többet nem szegült szembe a királlyal.

A harmadik és egyben legnagyobb birtokost, a Szapolyai családot a király nem tudta hasonlóképpen „pacifikálni”, passzívan szemlélte, amikor Szapolyai István 1493-ban egyszerűen elfoglalta Corvin bajmóci várát. Az 1492–1499 között az ország nádoraként is tevékenykedő Szapolyai nagy szerepet játszott Ulászló győzelmeiben, talán ennek is köszönhető, hogy közte és az uralkodó között soha nem alakult ki olyan jellegű konfliktus, mint Corvin Jánossal vagy Újlaki Lőrinccel.

Deficites pompa

Ulászló uralkodásának központi gondolata kétségtelenül a béke volt, amelyet mindig igyekezett elérni, amikor csak módjában állt. Mátyás uralkodása utolsó évtizedének költséges külországi háborúiból elege volt a magyar nemességnek. A fekete sereg megsemmisülését is elsősorban az okozta, hogy míg Mátyás a nyugati területekre terhelte az eltartásukat, Ulászló ezt a saját országaival nem tehette meg. Mindemellett, bár számos kötelezettséget vállalt, azokat nem feltétlenül teljesítette, így Mátyáshoz hasonlóan az ő országlása alatt is előfordult, hogy egy évben többször vetették ki a hadiadót.

A Jagelló-korról főleg az a kép alakult ki, hogy a királyt a nagy hatalmú bárók rángatták ide-oda, ám ennek az ellenkezőjére is bőven találunk példát, nem csak a fentebbi eseteket. 1493-ban például a székelyek panaszlevelét felhasználva nyirbálta meg Báthori István erdélyi vajda hatalmát.

A király csehországi tartózkodásainak története is ellentmond a mindenbe beleegyező uralkodó képének. Távollétében ugyanis a nádor kormányzott, de a visszatérő király könnyedén felülbírálta a döntéseit, ha úgy látta jónak. Ulászló volt az első a magyar trónon, akinek számtalan saját kezű aláírása maradt ránk, többek között egy olyan dokumentum is, amelyben önkezével húzott ki egy neki nem tetsző szakaszt.

A legégetőbb problémának kétségkívül a deficites költségvetés bizonyult, amelyet nem sikerült megoldani. Ennek az oka részben strukturális: Európában ekkoriban kevés olyan monarchia létezett, amelyik ne küzdött volna pénzhiánnyal. A Magyar Királyság sem különbözött tőlük, ám az ország gondjait tetézte, hogy az oszmán-török veszély miatt nagyszámú állandó fegyverest, valamint várak láncolatát kellett fenntartani.

A katonaság költségei pedig ebben az időszakban erőteljesebben emelkedtek, mint az ország gazdasági lehetőségei, ezt a gordiuszi csomót pedig Ulászló uralkodásának a végéig nem sikerült átvágni. Az azonban az utókor tévedése, hogy a király a budai mészárosok „lacikonyháján” kuncsorgott volna ételért: a fennmaradt számadások, valamint a királyi udvarban megforduló követek jelentéseiből is azt olvashatjuk ki, hogy az udvar fénye változatlan maradt Mátyás időszakához képest.

King Ulászló II: from 1504 to the Dózsa-peasant uprising in 1514
After the king had a stroke in 1504, he spent lots of time alone in the Castle of Buda. Tasting the death, he wanted to make sure about the succession of his throne and focused on his family.
The legend about saying “dobzse” (very well) to everything may have come from the period of his recovery.
After the death of János Corvin and the stroke of the king, the Hungarian noblemen seemed to began to feel quite worried about the succession of the throne. There was a Diet in February 1505 in Buda where the noble Estates tried to change the way of electing a king, unsuccessfully. Lord János Szapolyai attempted to gain the hand of the king`s daughter, Anna, but he was refused. The Austrians were hoping in the quick death of Ulászló, Maximilian was given the promise by the German Imperial Estates in Köln to pay 4,000 soldiers for his coming Hungarian campaign which he did declare in September (in secret, Maximilian assured Ulászló that he would support him against his own Hungarian barons if it was needed).
The war-declaration just provoked the resistance of the Hungarian Estates who appeared armed to their teeth on the Diet of Pest at Rákos field on 29 September 1505. Soon, they agreed that no foreign ruler can be elected as king of Hungary if Ulászló happened to die without an heir. The king refused to accept this decision, though. In answer to that, all the barons and the greatest lords of the country (Palatine Imre Perényi, János Szapolyai, Country Judge Péter szentgyörgyi and Cardinal and Archbishop of Esztergom, Tamás Bakócz) made an alliance against the claims of Habsburg Maximilian.
In December, King Ulászló sent a secret envoy to Maximilian to pave the way of a family treaty between them. No surprise, that the treaty was made on 20 March 1506 between them in order to balance the last year`s decision of the Hungarian barons. According to it, the grandson of Habsburg Maximilian, Ferdinand (later he became indeed king of Hungary in 1527, having usurped the throne based on this treaty) was to marry Anna, the daughter of King Ulászló; if Ulászló happened to have a male heir, he was supposed to marry the sister of Ferdinand, Maria von Habsburg. Yet, Ulászló pretended that he was angry at Maximilian and he accepted the decision of his Diet in April at Székesfehérvár and in May he declared war on the Habsburgs. General István Héderváry`s army set out at once and began to destroy the Eastern provinces of Austria. Finally, the next Diet decided to begin peace talks with Maximilian in June but the Habsburg army was taking Pozsony (Bratislava, Pressburg) and Sopron about this time.
The male heir of Ulászló, a boy called Lajos (Louis) was born on 1 July 1506, he was going to be the king of Hungary called Lajos II, the one who was going to lead his army to Mohács twenty years later. There was a special tax which was collected at the time of the birth of a male heir, the so-called ox-roasting tax. The free Transylvanian Székely guardsmen rebelled to pay it and the Captain of Fogaras Castle, Pál Tomori (later the general of King Louis II at Mohács) had to defeat them with his troops. Social unrest was growing in the country. The king made peace with the Habsburgs in July, though. Some days later, Queen Anna, the wife of King Ulászló died. From now on, the only goal of Ulászló has become to have his son crowned before he died. Finally, Lajos (Louis) got crowned as king of Czechia and Hungary in 1508 and 1509. Ulászló`s health was declining in the 1510s rather seriously.
In addition to the increasing poverty, a huge plague broke out in 1508 and the Turks have also appeared and began to besiege the Castle of Karánsebes in 1509 but they could not take it. The pestilence had been raging in the kingdom until the end of 1510. Even a six-month-long cease-fire had to be made with the Turks in July who must have been suffering because of the epidemic which was made longer in October 1510. It was the year when János Szapolyai was appointed as the Voivode of Transylvania which gave him full power there: when he became the King of Hungary in 1526, he had been already in this position in Transylvania for a long time.
The Ottoman attacks renewed in May 1511, they were unsuccessfully attacking Tinnin (Knin) Castle in Dalmatia. As the attacks were repelled, Sultan Bajezid II agreed to sign a Truce for five years in Istanbul between him and Ulászló, the Polish King Zsigmond and Venice. Due to the clumsiness of the Hungarian envoy, the areas of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia had been not included in the text so the Hungarians haven`t confirmed it so the enmities went on. The army of Imre Török, the Bán of Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade got defeated by the Turk armies at Szendrő Castle in 1512. It was the year when the new Ottoman Sultan Selim I got his throne who immediately ordered his troops on the Borderland to attack Hungary and Croatia. The Hungarians may not have been well aware of the changes in the Ottoman empire because Palatine Imre Perényi (and Bán of Croatia) was fighting the widow of the previous Croatian Bán instead of attacking the Turks, taking the castles of Bihács and Zengg from her. Seeing this, the Ottomans took the castles along the Száva River: Szrebernik, Tesány, Szokol, and Blagaj. The Hungarian troops of István Báthori, Comes of Temes hurried there and defeated the Turk army at Iilládia (in Krassó county), and another Turk army was defeated at Jajca, too.
It didn`t seem to stop the Ottomans who took several castles in 1513 in Dalmatia, namely Nutyák, Szinj, Csazsin, and Ver. The Ottoman peril was growing so the Pope appointed (his rival who had not been elected as Pope), Cardinal Tamás Bakócz as a Legate of Central- and Eastern Europe to coordinate and organize a crusade against the Muslims. We will see its tragic outcome in my next post. The Croatian Péter Beriszló scattered a Turk army at Dubica in 1513 who were besieging the Castle of Blinj, they killed or captures 3,000 Turks there. At the same time, the armies of the Transylvanian Voivode, János Szapolyai were destroying the Ottoman-owned Bulgaria and the Bán of Nándorfehérvár, Ambrus Sárkány defeated another Ottoman army near to his castle, killing 800 of the enemy. Soon, peace talks began in Istanbul but the Turks broke into the country in 1514 again, attacking unsuccessfully the Castle of Tinnin / Knin in Dalmatia again, in February.
But it was just the beginning of the sad events of 1514.
King Ulászló II and the Dózsa-peasant uprising in 1514;
Please, read my post below about the Peasant Uprising of György Dózsa in 1514; it was an important step towards the defeat we suffered at the Battle of Mohács. An addition: some experts say that Cardinal Tamás Bakócz had good intentions and he is accused wrongly.
What is still missing from the dreadful history of 1514: in February-March, the Turks were unsuccessfully besieging Tinnin (Knin) so the 40,000 peasant crusaders could have been useful. Voivode Szapolyai had even attacked the Ottoman-occupied Bulgaria in May and he was waiting for the crusaders to come after him – in vain. We know that the rebels were destroying the kingdom – they burned the countryside, they had even burned the castle of Nagylak in Csanád County which belonged to the Jaksics family (it was a personal remark to Josip Jakšić) – and Szapolyai had to turn back from his campaign to defeat the peasants. While the Hungarians were busy killing each other in the biggest peasant uprising in their history, the Turks were systematically destroying the Dalmatian shores and Croatia, taking some smaller castles and building a fort next to Zengg Castle.
The last years of King Ulászló II, 1515-16
After suffering a severe stroke, King Ulászló was focusing on the safety of his family, trying to ensure their future. Yet, the Ottoman peril hasn`t ceased to exist, either.
Among other lords of the country, it was Bán (Duke) Beriszlói Péter aka Petar Berislavić who was still fighting and he organized a counter-attack against the enemy in February 1515 but the Slavonian Estates denied all help from him, saying that they belonged to Hungary instead of Croatia.
It was in April 1515 that Voivode Szapolyai of Transylvania and Comes Báthori of Temes joined the troops of the two Báns of Nándorfehérvár / Belgrade, Török Imre, and Paksy Mihály and they besieged the Castle of Zsarnó (Avala) which was located just opposite to Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade).
Sadly, they received a crushing defeat from the army of Sinán, the Bey of Szendrő who hurried there to relieve the castle. Paksy died and all the military supplies were lost.
During the summer, King Ulászló II met Emperor Maximilian I and the Polish King Zsigmond I on 19 July in Vienna. Some days later, the double Jagellonian-Habsburg marriage took place in the St. Stefan Cathedral.
Maximilian`s grandson, Ferdinand married Anna of Jagelló, the daughter of King Ulászló and the small Lajos (Louis), Ulászló`s son, wed Maria von Habsburg, the sister of Habsburg Ferdinand.
It was a triumph of Ulászló`s diplomacy but many historians think it sealed the kingdom to the Habsburgs for good. According to contemporary sources, the old Hungarian king was crying when he said farewell to his daughter, Anna who was leaving for Innsbruck and he had to be dragged from there; he knew he would never see her again.
He officially asked Emperor Maximilian and King Zsigmond in 1516 to be the tutors and caretakers of his son, Lajos (Louis). Ulászló died on 13 March in Buda Castle.
The barons and the estates of the country approved the 10-year-old Lajos as their king with full authority on the Diet of Rákosmező on 24 April and they assigned a Board of Counsellors around him.
Some months later, Count George Brandenburg (the nephew of the late King Ulászló and one of the tutors of young Lajos) made a treaty with Palatine Perényi Imre and Voivode Szapolyai to split the huge Hunyadi lands among them.
The Bishop of Pécs, Szatmári György became the Chancellor of the Kingdom and it was practically he who was running the country.
The Turks were burning and raiding the Borderland, the 17,4% of Slavonian houses and properties were destroyed compared to their number in 1495. While the Kingdom of Hungary was rapidly losing its strength, the Ottoman Empire became twice as strong as before the time of King Matthias.
In the picture, you can see King Ulászló II (in 1511) who was a good father and loved his family very much.

Az öröklés érdekében

Ulászló 1490-ben elvette az özvegy Beatrix királynét, hogy annak pénzügyi és politikai támogatását elnyerje. A meddő királynéval azonban nem számolt hosszú távon. Bakócz Tamás formai hibát ejtett a szertartáson, majd Ulászló sosem maradt négyszemközt feleségével, hogy a válást könnyebben kimondhassák.

Beatrix hamar rájött a csalásra, de nem tudott mást tenni, mint a nápolyi rokonai segítségével „lobbizni” a pápánál. Amikor azonban VI. Sándor pápa szövetkezett a franciákkal és a velenceiekkel, elfogyott a levegő a királyné körül. A szövetség ugyanis a Habsburgok ellen irányult, ezért meg akarták nyerni a hátukban lévő Ulászlót. Így a pápa 1500-ban megsemmisítette a magyar király házasságát, aki két év múlva elvehette Foix-i Annát.

Meglepő módon a 46 éves Ulászló és a 18 éves Anna jól megértették egymást, a királyné fajsúlyos szereplőjévé vált a budai udvarnak. A férjet talán ezért is sújtotta le nagyon, amikor 1506-ban ifjú neje a későbbi II. Lajos megszületése után néhány héttel gyermekágyi lázban elhunyt.

Ulászló uralkodásának utolsó évtizede elsősorban azzal telt, hogy fia öröklését biztosítsa. Hogy megfelelő támasza legyen, az unokaöccsének, Brandenburgi Györgynek adományozta a Corvin János után maradt vagyont. A Habsburgokkal ellenséges politizálástól visszatért a diplomáciai megoldásokhoz, és megkötötte a Habsburg–Jagelló házassági szerződést, amely tulajdonképpen nyugatról is biztosította fia királyságát.

Az ismétlődő szélütések az utolsó esztendőkben már rendkívül megviselték a király egészségét, a közvéleményben Ulászlóról kialakult kép az ekkor született ábrázolásokon és leírásokon alapul. Az 1515-ös bécsi királytalálkozón, ahol a fia és a lánya eljegyzését tartották meg, a résztvevőkben a király már egy beteg és megtört öregember benyomását keltette, aki sírva búcsúzott a lányától, amikor visszaindult Budára. Utolsó célját, hogy Lajos megrázkódtatás nélkül örökölje a magyar trónt, sikerült elérnie.

Az szinte bizonyos, hogy Ulászlót soha nem fogjuk a magyar történelem legjelesebb uralkodói között számon tartani. Tartozunk azonban annyival magunknak és a történelmünknek, hogy Jagelló-házi királyunkról hitelesebb képet adunk.

Source: mainly from Múlt-kor Magazine: